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The Emphasis-Added Aristotle on Tyranny

As to tyrannies, they are preserved in two most opposite ways. One of them is the old traditional method in which most tyrants administer their government. Of such arts, Periander of Corinth is said to have been the great master, and many similar devices may be gathered from the Persians in the administration of their government. There are firstly the prescriptions mentioned some distance back, for the preservation of a tyranny, in so far as this is possible; viz., that the tyrant should lop off those who are too high; he must put to death men of spirit; he must not allow common meals, clubs, education, and the like; he must be upon his guard against anything which is likely to inspire either courage or confidence among his subjects; he must prohibit literary assemblies or other meetings for discussion, and he must take every means to prevent people from knowing one another (for acquaintance begets mutual confidence).

Further, he must compel all persons staying in the city to appear in public and live at his gates; then he will know what they are doing: if they are always kept under, they will learn to be humble. In short, he should practice these and the like Persian and barbaric arts, which all have the same object.

A tyrant should also endeavor to know what each of his subjects says or does, and should employ spies, like the ‘female detectives’ at Syracuse, and the eavesdroppers whom Hiero was in the habit of sending to any place of resort or meeting; for the fear of informers prevents people from speaking their minds, and if they do, they are more easily found out.

Another art of the tyrant is to sow quarrels among the citizens; friends should be embroiled with friends, the people with the notables, and the rich with one another. Also, he should impoverish his subjects; he thus provides against the maintenance of a guard by the citizen and the people, having to keep hard at work, are prevented from conspiring. The Pyramids of Egypt afford an example of this policy; also the offerings of the family of Cypselus, and the building of the temple of Olympian Zeus by the Peisistratidae, and the great Polycratean monuments at Samos; all these works were alike intended to occupy the people and keep them poor.

Another practice of tyrants is to multiply taxes, after the manner of Dionysius at Syracuse, who contrived that within five years his subjects should bring into the treasury their whole property. The tyrant is also fond of making war in order that his subjects may have something to do and be always in want of a leader. And whereas the power of a king is preserved by his friends, the characteristic of a tyrant is to distrust his friends, because he knows that all men want to overthrow him, and they above all have the power.

Again, the evil practices of the last and worst form of democracy are all found in tyrannies. Such are the power given to women in their families in the hope that they will inform against their husbands, and the license which is allowed to slaves in order that they may betray their masters; for slaves and women do not conspire against tyrants; and they are of course friendly to tyrannies and also to democracies since under them they have a good time. For the people too would fain be a monarch, and therefore by them, as well as by the tyrant, the flatterer is held in honor; in democracies, he is the demagogue; and the tyrant also has those who associate with him in a humble spirit, which is a work of flattery.

Hence tyrants are always fond of bad men, because they love to be flattered, but no man who has the spirit of a freeman in him will lower himself by flattery; good men love others, or at any rate do not flatter them. Moreover, the bad are useful for bad purposes; ‘nail knocks out nail,’ as the proverb says. It is characteristic of a tyrant to dislike every one who has dignity or independence; he wants to be alone in his glory, but anyone who claims a like dignity or asserts his independence encroaches upon his prerogative, and is hated by him as an enemy to his power. Another mark of a tyrant is that he likes foreigners better than citizens, and lives with them and invites them to his table; for the one are enemies, but the Others enter into no rivalry with him.

— from Politics by Aristotle

Comments on this entry are closed.

  • ghostsniper December 2, 2020, 2:13 PM

    They will find that I don’t play well with others and recognize no rules created without my approval.
    In fact, I already live as an outlaw, a criminal, a person that knows he can be caged or killed at any time.
    Can you live as a hunted animal?

  • Casey Klahn December 2, 2020, 3:39 PM

    I don’t know. I stupidly went afield this afternoon to harvest a turkey, with my unfilled spring tag in my pocket. I’m too old for infantry shit; it’s a generalship for me or nothing (LOL).

    As far as the election outcome goes, I need no evidentiary calling. I have studied war, and it acts with its own agenda. You may not want war, but it has your name all over it, my patriotic friends. Not that I’m happy: I’m pissed.

  • Terry December 2, 2020, 4:59 PM

    Casey-

    I am an old one as well. And I am also very pissed at what I see, read and hear what is going on in our nation. Treason is now an American right. WTF! I have very few friends due to my outspoken condemnation of about everything going on all around. Makes me a radical in many folks cloudy minds. Is patriotism a radical trait now-

  • Lance de Boyle December 3, 2020, 7:06 AM

    Ghostsniper asks,

    “Can you live as a hunted animal?”

    Have you seen my wife?

  • M. Murcek December 3, 2020, 8:44 AM

    The Soviet Union did all these things to the extreme. Where is it now? China isn’t being led by Mao any longer, but it’s not far removed from him and in some ways has advanced the tyrant’s craft in ways Mao could only dream of. It’s working – for now, to the extent that the corrupt press acts as stenographers for that corrupt regime. How well is it actually working and for how long? Only time will tell, and should it fail, the “top men” at the CIA and the New York Times will be the last to know. The quislings trying to bring that model here will know it too, probably in the shadow of a lamp post.

  • Skorpion December 3, 2020, 10:32 AM

    La plus c’est change….

  • Dan December 3, 2020, 11:21 AM

    Mr. Vanderleun, you add genuine value to my day’s reading. Thank you.

    Americans once cared little for tyrants. “Give me liberty or give me death” and such.

    Now it’s, “Wear your mask, or the county health director shall be informed.”

  • EX-Californian Pete December 4, 2020, 9:27 AM

    To answer the question- “Can you live as a hunted animal?”

    Anyone who has ridden a Harley (or any other brand of bike) on the 405, the 134, the 110, or the 5 freeways in L.A. county for 25+ years knows what that feels like.
    And anyone who owns a firearm (or has the outright audacity to build a collection of firearms) in California ALSO knows what it feels like.

    Since I moved back to the Midwest, I no longer have to deal with either scenario.