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Thanksgiving’s First Rifle: The Mayflower Wheel-lock Carbine

[A PERSONAL NOTE: My middle name happens to be Wheelock, as in “Gerard Wheelock Van der Leun.” This is a family tradition from my mother’s side of the family which is descended from Ralph Wheelock, our own original Puritan, and a member of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1636, 6 years after the settlement of Boston, and at the peak of the “Great Migration”. (Yes, we’ve been in America for that long. And yes, my mother’s mother was a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution.)  Ralph Wheelock most likely used one of these name-sake carbines.]

Story by: Kristin Alberts

What’s even more American than turkey, cranberries and pumpkin pie these days? An Italian gun, that’s what. The only known surviving firearm that crossed the wild Atlantic aboard the good ship Mayflower, settled with the pilgrims at Plymouth Colony and ultimately helped the first colonists not only survive, but prosper. Meet the Mayflower Gun.

The Gun

Affectionately dubbed the Mayflower Gun and thought of as an American icon, the gun is actually an Italian-made wheel-lock carbine. This single-shot musket was originally chambered in .50 caliber rifle, though ages of heavy use have worn away the majority of the rifling. Given the combination of natural wear, repairs and modifications, if the gun were to be loaded and fired today, it would require a .66 caliber.

According to curators at the NRA’s National Firearms Museum—where the gun has found a most comfortable home—markings recorded on both the barrel and lockplate demonstrate a connection with the Beretta family of armorers.

One of the features making this musket instantly recognizable is its namesake. The surviving detail of the actual wheel-lock device—the rotating mechanism, which provides spark and ignition, not unlike that of our modern day cigarette lighters—is a thing of fine craftsmanship and beauty. The wheel-lock’s engineering, execution and efficacy far exceed those of its predecessor, the matchlock.

The man: John Alden

Without the adventuresome spirit of one young man with an eye for quality arms, the Mayflower Gun would not be a part of our American history today. Enter, John Alden. Alden was around 20 to 21 years of age at the ship’s departure. However, his original intent was never really to set sail. John Alden was simply hired as a ships cooper—a barrel maker by trade—at the yard where ships docked. But being a young man with much hope and courage, he decided to board the Mayflower for its daunting passage. Sometime near debarkation, it is speculated that Alden purchased the firearm used, perhaps from a traveler or mercenary as was common in those days. Of the guns widely available at that time, this was one of the finest and most expensive, so certainly young Alden was wise beyond his years.

Following an arduous three-month winter passage at sea, battered by the north Atlantic’s gales, the Mayflower reached its destination in 1620. History recognizes John Alden as the first man to step ashore, and when Alden’s feet hit terra firma, this gun was most likely his sole means of protection. Though the early years at the new settlement were marked with many tribulations, Alden prospered. Along with the other men who made the passage, he was one of the signatories of the Mayflower Compact, documenting the freedoms and liberties of the new colony. Among his many ventures, Alden is remembered for his service under Capt. Miles Standish, with whom he is rumored to rivaled over the courtship of the woman who eventually became Alden’s wife.

Part of this story is recounted in Longfellow’s poem “The Courtship of Miles Standish.” Between the years 1633 to 1675, Alden served not only as assistant governor of the Plymouth Colony, but often, due to absence, fulfilled governor duties. He was known to have served on many juries including participation in at least one witch trial. Through all this time, including a move inland and away from the original colony, the Mayflower Gun remained in Alden’s possession. At the time of his death in 1687, the gun began its long succession of Alden family ownership.

The History

The Alden family dwelling, like the gun, has survived for nearly 400 years. The Mayflower gun was discovered—still loaded, nonetheless—in a secret protective cubbyhole near the front door of the home during a 1924 renovation. The Alden home, which was occupied by family members until the mid-1890’s, is currently a National Historic Landmark in Duxbury, Massachusetts. Though it is certain that other settlers would have carried similar arms, this is indeed the only known surviving piece, likely because it was tucked away and forgotten after its years of service had ended.

Because the gun was something of a large caliber at the time, it would likely have been used to take down deer and other large game as well as birds—perhaps even a Thanksgiving longbeard. Naturally, the original stock was fashioned of fine European walnut, though sometime in the gun’s history, a worn portion of the front stock was replaced with American walnut. There is great beauty in the wear patterns of the wood, simply for knowing the many hands and circumstances that have handled this weapon. The Mayflower Gun is currently on display at the NRA Museum.Oh, the stories it could tell of game hunted, lives taken and families saved! This tool was at once a protector and a provider. In fact, the Mayflower Gun may well have been present—or at least played a role—at the 1621 birth of the Thanksgiving holiday we celebrate today. The gun, in fact, is one of the few surviving pieces known to have made the trip aboard the Mayflower.

On Display

Those near Fairfax, Virginia can visit this amazing and well-traveled weapon at its home in the NRA’s National Firearms Museum. It is currently being featured on display as part of the “Old Guns in a New World” gallery, an exhibit in which firearms bridge the gap between the Old World and the new colonies. In addition to this one, the Museum is home to 14 other galleries housing more than 2,700 firearms of remarkable significance. Admission is free and the museum is open daily. For those interested in learning more without making a physical visit, detailed virtual tours are easily navigated at their website.

In Thanksgiving

Nearly 400 years have passed since the Mayflower Gun traversed the Atlantic to forever become a priceless, tangible slice of American history. In the spirit of Thanksgiving celebration, the time is right to remember not only all those who came before us, but also the hardships they faced to get us where we are today. In reminiscing on this beautiful Mayflower Gun, we here at Guns.com are thankful for our first amendment freedoms. So with a nod of the clichéd black pilgrim hats, take some special time this holiday to enjoy family, friends, freedoms and of course, firearms.


Comments on this entry are closed.

  • charles November 23, 2017, 3:07 AM

    Thank you. I had never heard of this gun.

  • ghostsniper November 23, 2017, 4:43 AM

    In the 18th century the musket was the “assault weapon” of the time, and it had a bayonet mount but not “that thing that goes up”.

  • Joel November 23, 2017, 8:48 AM

    What a great topic for a Thanksgiving post. Thank you.

  • John the River November 22, 2018, 5:46 AM

    Happy Thanksgiving Gerald and to all.

  • MMinLamesa November 22, 2018, 6:11 AM

    Have a Happy Thanksgiving Gerard. Mom too!

  • Hangtown Bob November 22, 2018, 8:40 AM

    Having just read this and having just met your beloved mother, Lois, I feel that I now have a slight personal and rather tenuous relationship with the first Thanksgiving.

    Thank you, Gerard Wheelock Van Der Leun

    Happy Thanksgiving to you and yours…….

  • Snakepit Kansas November 22, 2018, 8:41 AM


  • Terry November 22, 2018, 9:36 AM

    Great piece of American history. Thank you for posting.
    Happy Thanksgiving to all.

  • Soylent Green November 22, 2018, 10:18 AM

    Gerard, I am a descendent of John Howland, another Separatist who traveled with John Alden and perhaps knew your ancestor Ralph Wheelock. It’s a small world… Happy Thanksgiving to you.

    • Brian_E November 26, 2021, 8:33 PM

      It is possible that our family trees overlaps to some degree. It is indeed a small world – as it turns out there is at least one Howland in my family tree – and from the Massachusetts area as well. I’ll have to look a little closer at the family’s genealogical records. My earliest ancestor arrived here in the Americas in the early/mid 1650’s – and I’m the 10th generation born on this continent. Perhaps a bit late to the party (having missed the 1621 ‘first Thanksgiving), it is still a holiday that is well respected in our family. Happy Thanksgiving! I am thankful indeed that we have this official holiday to encourage formal expression of our gratitude for things both great and small.

  • Aldo Cella November 23, 2018, 4:42 PM

    My ancestor George Soule was a signer of the Mayflower Compact and of course attended the original Thanksgiving feast. I have no doubt that very wheelock was in his hands a time or two!
    And yes, my grandmother also was, and my mother is, a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution.

    Happy Thanksgiving Gerard! (and to the rest of the usual suspects, too!)

  • Rob De Witt November 23, 2018, 8:05 PM


    Thanks to a Mormon lady friend, and despite having lived my life as an orphan, I discovered at age 70 that there were De Witts, my forebears, born in Nieuw Amsterdam in the very early 1600s. The Mayflower arrived in 1620, the Dutch sold Nieuw Amsterdam to the English in 1667, and thereafter it was known as New York.

    You and I were both born in 1945, in vastly different circumstances; and yet, here we find ourselves.

    Thank you for everything, and a blessed Thanksgiving.

  • Terry November 28, 2019, 9:33 AM

    Gerard & Rob. You can add me to the born in 1945 club. I also am a descendant of a man by the name of Hunt (my last name as well) that had “dealings” with Captain John Smith (of Pocahontas story fame).

    My family had all sorts of letters and such going back to 1606 at Jamestown. A cousin of mine has supposedly taken possession of all the records of the family. She won’t communicate with me.

    Happy Thanksgiving to all!

  • Mark Gowen November 29, 2019, 6:41 AM

    Just when I thought you couldn’t get any cooler. Wheelock. I continue to be impressed. (Not sarcasm). My favorite daily read.
    Happy Thanksgiving to all.

  • Anne November 25, 2020, 8:56 AM

    Dear Gerard:
    I am so thankful for this gift you give daily. It is the sweetest moment of my day and helps me to try to hold on to grace.
    Thank you,
    P.S. Would you please clarify: I was of the impression that your mom has passed away. Is this correct?

  • EX-Californian Pete November 25, 2020, 9:31 AM

    GREAT article to start off the Thanksgiving holiday!
    You’ve probably already guessed that I’m a “Gun Nut” and collector, and I really love reading about historic and antique weapons that are part of our rich heritage. This website just gets better every day.

    Happy Thanksgiving to all.

  • Auntie Analogue November 25, 2020, 10:20 AM

    Happy Thanksgiving, All! May you keep your powder dry and your bird moist.

  • Vanderleun November 25, 2020, 10:39 AM

    Yes, Anne, my mother passed away two years ago.

  • ghostsniper November 26, 2020, 4:36 AM

    Been 2 years already? Holy Kow!
    Is it me, or does it seem this thing called time is flying past at the speed of light?
    Been almost 2 years (Feb) since my youngest brother died from a heart attack and I still can’t believe it.

  • Snakepit Kansas November 26, 2020, 5:22 AM

    Dad has been gone for just over a year now. We all had a snort of his favorite Scotch on his birthday this past summer in honor of his memory. We will have some words honoring him at dinner time today. There is still very much to be thankful for including the memories. Happy Thanksgiving all!

  • Kevin in PA November 26, 2020, 8:16 AM

    Happy Thanksgiving to all AD friends!
    We have much for which to be thankful, in spite of the shit-storm 2020 has been.

    Gerard, what a terrific share from those folks at ammo.com. They have been posting some great stuff in recent months and your connection to the “Wheelock” adds nice flavor to the story.

  • Elder Son November 26, 2020, 11:17 AM

    My 10th Great-Grandfather/mother is William White and his wife Susanna Jackson (White). Their son, my 9th Great-Grandfather/mother Peregrine White and his wife Sarah Basset (White), he was the first English child to be born to the Pilgrims, was one year and 4 months when the Settlers and Wampanoag Indians shared the autumn harvest. And to that, I am grateful.

    Son of the Pilgrims. Son of the Indian Wars. Son of the American Revolution. Son of the Civil War.

    Joe Biden: Forgo Your Traditions White Man: https://magaville.wordpress.com/2020/11/26/joe-biden-forgo-your-traditions-white-man/

  • gwbnyc November 25, 2021, 7:58 AM

    Scots-Irish slaveowners, here.

  • Joe November 25, 2021, 11:49 AM

    By the Continental Congress
    The First National Thanksgiving Proclamation
    November 1, 1777
    FORASMUCH as it is the indispensable Duty of all Men to adore the superintending Providence of Almighty God; to acknowledge with Gratitude their Obligation to him for Benefits received, and to implore such farther Blessings as they stand in Need of: And it having pleased him in his abundant Mercy, not only to continue to us the innumerable Bounties of his common Providence; but also to smile upon us in the Prosecution of a just and necessary War, for the Defense and Establishment of our unalienable Rights and Liberties; particularly in that he hath been pleased, in so great a Measure, to prosper the Means used for the Support of our Troops, and to crown our Arms with most signal success:
    It is therefore recommended to the legislative or executive Powers of these UNITED STATES to set apart THURSDAY, the eighteenth Day of December next, for SOLEMN THANKSGIVING and PRAISE: That at one Time and with one Voice, the good People may express the grateful Feelings of their Hearts, and consecrate themselves to the Service of their Divine Benefactor; and that, together with their sincere Acknowledgments and Offerings, they may join the penitent Confession of their manifold Sins, whereby they had forfeited every Favor; and their humble and earnest Supplication that it may please GOD through the Merits of JESUS CHRIST, mercifully to forgive and blot them out of Remembrance; That it may please him graciously to afford his Blessing on the Governments of these States respectively, and prosper the public Council of the whole: To inspire our Commanders, both by Land and Sea, and all under them, with that Wisdom and Fortitude which may render them fit Instruments, under the Providence of Almighty GOD, to secure for these United States, the greatest of all human Blessings, INDEPENDENCE and PEACE: That it may please him, to prosper the Trade and Manufactures of the People, and the Labor of the Husbandman, that our Land may yield its Increase: To take Schools and Seminaries of Education, so necessary for cultivating the Principles of true Liberty, Virtue and Piety, under his nurturing Hand; and to prosper the Means of Religion, for the promotion and enlargement of that Kingdom, which consisteth “in Righteousness, Peace and Joy in the Holy Ghost.”
    And it is further recommended, That servile Labor, and such Recreation, as, though at other Times innocent, may be unbecoming the Purpose of this Appointment, be omitted on so solemn an Occasion.

    • Dirk November 25, 2021, 7:58 PM

      Joe, outstanding, for 65 years I’ve been taught about pilgrims and natives. Learned the Thanksgiving Proclamation just yesterday, on Hannity radio. Was shocked to discover George Washington and both houses actually designed it.

      The guest host, did an outstanding job defining it, reading it. My wife a 38 year public school teacher had never heard of the proclamation. Here thanksgiving educational series has always been pilgrims and native Americans. We both got an outstanding education.

      Thank you for sharing the “ Real Story” with our friends.

      Dirk Williams

      • Joe Krill November 26, 2021, 8:01 AM

        Dirk, Thank you for the positive comment. The Proclamation only opens the door slightly but it does shine the light on what lies ahead for America. It is appropriate that the “Contemplation of the sword” picture is just to the right. Joe Krill

  • Deborah November 25, 2021, 1:08 PM

    to complete the nomenclature (stationerywise) : III…

  • John P Coggeshall November 25, 2021, 8:38 PM

    Gerard: thanks again, for all you provide us, almost everyday…to try to make us wiser…
    We need to remember, with thankfulness, that those who were here before us…many of them…did not survive the contest…many,… Europeans, “Natives”, “Invaders”, “slaves”, “servants”, “masters”…many of them died from disease, war, conflict, starvation…all too many causes…

    We [all of us] are here because our ancestors survived all of that…

    So, we should be thankful.

  • Nori November 26, 2021, 7:06 AM

    What a marvelous Thanksgiving story. What a marvelous rifle; those Italians still make fine weaponry,especially Beretta’s long guns.
    Thank you,Mr Wheelock,for this very American history lesson,and Joe’s Continental Congress Proclamation,too.
    Was surprised to learn of the NRA’s Museum. Guess they do serve a worthwhile function after all.

    • ghostsniper November 23, 2022, 12:56 PM

      I can attest the Beretta short arms of late are mighty fine as well.

  • Skorpion November 26, 2021, 2:58 PM

    Re my connection to Plymouth Rock? One-quarter of my ancestors were Anglo-Welsh settlers who arrived in that general area decades after the Pilgrims, and later on became active Abolitionists.

    The other three-quarters? Southern Italians and Swedes who *weren’t even in the country* when slavery and the Indian Wars were a thing.

    Take your *White Collective Guilt* and stick it where the monkey sticks the nuts, Wokies.

  • Cletus Socrates November 29, 2021, 8:57 AM

    I am actually kin to John Alden and Priscilla Mullins. I have not bothered to join the Mayflower Society, as some of my cousins have. I prefer to relate as a Georgia redneck – just where I identify. I think Gerard can attest.

  • Quad Tracked 50cal Gatling Bazooka November 23, 2022, 3:12 AM

    So .50cal is older than we thought.
    Three cheers to the ancestors for GTFO of Brittainistan.
    UK is the example of it could be worse along with Australia or New Zealand.
    Thank you Pilgrims!

    • Terry November 23, 2022, 8:29 AM

      The Australian’s and New Zealander’s need some American tenacity currently. Both of those nations are being eaten alive by NWO maggots’. And God help us as well.

  • Casey Klahn November 23, 2022, 7:54 AM

    My compliments on your name and for being a Son of the American Revolution. Card carrying or not, it’s a great legacy.

    I was nervous shooting my first wild turkey, because the bird gives a very strong defensive game and the modern way of stalking the bird offers him a fair chance. You must shoot him in the brain, and must get no less than 5 big pellets in his brain and/or the spine of his neck, or he won’t go down. If you shoot him in the body, he’ll just laugh at you and fly away. I don’t know personally but I imagine even a slow half inch projectile may not do the job, or if it does it will destroy precious meat. A shotgun’s the thing for birds.

    Wheel-lock. Isn’t it ironclad wheel-shaped logic that suggests to liberals that the 2nd Amendment preserves our right to carry only flint long arms? They like their joke so much they even made some stupid commercials about some idiot reloading his long rifle in a contemporary situation. However, don’t try to take a turkey with an AR, either. Again, he’ll just laugh at you and fly away.

    Have a great Thanksgiving everyone!

    • ghostsniper November 23, 2022, 12:55 PM

      It’s been proven over and over the poodle bullet will take that entire head off, at up to and beyond 100 yards in one clean sweep while never effecting that oh so precious neck meat. As to your other comment, I concur, in that I shot a treed turkey with a 12 ga #4 shot at almost point blank range, a body shot, and that robust critter lit off and was never seen again. Yes, turkeys wear effective body armor.

      • Casey Klahn November 24, 2022, 6:33 AM

        The pattern on a muzzle loader is bigger than a turkey head (as big as those are) at 100 yards, so I never cogitated that in my equation.

        Treed turkey. Perhaps the third or fourth one I kilt was indeed a head shot, at 20 or so yards, but brush absorbed some of the shot and he flew up into a tree.

        The squeamish reader will want to step out of the room for a moment. Thanks.

        I searched for Tom and found him in a branch overhead, and one thing led to another and he flew down right in front of me, in sort of a face-off. Now, a turkey has an eveil looking expression on his face, on a good day. A not-dead head-shot turkey will give you one M-in F-er of a look when he’s facing you at point blank range. He hadn’t the wherewithal to do anything else except give me that laser stink eye before the curtain came down.

        Think me a brute? Well, let me tell you, the Wild Merriam’s Turkey is a magnificent bird, large in size and difficult to hunt. He’s the very definition of a game bird, and mighty good eating as well. I have nothing but respect for him. For Ghost and the other gunners, I use a Turkey Choked Federal #5 /2.75″. I have gotten turkey at a smidge over 50 yards, but 30 is the best.

        Enjoy Thanksgiving.

  • Terry November 23, 2022, 8:31 AM

    I wish you all a very wonderful Thanksgiving!

  • Dirk November 23, 2022, 8:39 AM

    We are about to be apart of the 55 million travels on the road in about an hour. While we’re bringing a Turkey for smoking, I’m frankly turkeyed? Out.

    I’m in charge of the 22 pound Prime Rib. I happen to be fond of Prime Rib! This will likely be our last Thanksgiving with my wife’s mother, she suffering terribly from Dementia, what a hideous decease, sucks the life out of our loved ones.

    We are not able to change that, however we can make this Thanksgiving special. Ima do my best, she’s been a guiding lite in my life, a life lived with dignity and honor, Old school wisdom!“ She’s From Norway.

    Helen loves Margarita’s. I purchased a 150.00 bottle of Don Julio, “dam fine sipping Tequila” I’m mixing her the Margaritas she loves, the exact way she likes them.

    Helens Margarita’s will be made with the finest ingredients, with max love and respect, in her honor.

    Family is EVERYTHING, hope you all get to share tomorrow with loved ones people you care about.

    • ghostsniper November 23, 2022, 1:15 PM

      Happy and safe motoring Dirk.

      Tomorrow, for my wife and I, will be much like the last 20 in a row. Just the 2 of us and our routine.

      The 7lb Honeysuckle White bone-in turkey breast has been warming it’s heels in the fridge for the past 2 days, converting it from its sub-zero home for the past month.

      Today my wife of 38 years will prepare 2 of her legendary pumpkin pies and tomorrow she will make her dressing bright and early then she will vacate the kitchen as I set about to do everything else.

      It’s my job and I run it like a choreographed boss. The bird goes in the oven for about 3 hours and once that starts the rest falls into line. Like an assembly line with all systems moving forward in unison.

      The loaded mashed potatoes, the thick, luscious gravy, yams shellacked with maple-honey and blanketed in mini-marshmallows then torched til brown, and don’t forget the golden brown dinner rolls hot from the oven.

      And lastly the little upside down can of cranberry saw sliced in half inch portions for cleansing the palate before the dessert.

      2 hours worth of nappage on the couch might be required with a cat layin on my chest. Then, out to the porch for sipping some poison as the sun heads west.

      As the moon slowly rises I’ll continue to sit and sip while waiting for the possoms and raccoons to emerge from their lairs for the surprise I will have set for them. The discarded carcass of the ceremonial bird. Like watching a scrimmage on the 10 yard line by players with weapons. Exciting.

  • ontoiran November 23, 2022, 9:02 AM

    it’s humbling to think about what they went through to get us where we are. those were a different kind of people